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纽约时报 环保署对空气污染所持态度过于乐观(1)

时间:2020-11-20 06:42:45

(单词翻译:单击)

EPA's Reckoning Is a Rosier1 View of Air Pollution

环保署评估空气污染时,所持态度过于乐观

By Lisa Friedman

文/丽莎·弗里德曼

WASHINGTON — The Environmental Protection Agency plans to change the way it calculates the health risks of air pollution,

华盛顿电——环保署计划改变计算空气污染带来的健康风险的方式,

a shift that would make it easier to roll back a key climate change rule because it would result in far fewer predicted deaths from pollution,

这一转变会导致污染致死的预测数据变得小得多,压低这一关键的气候变化规则也会变得更加容易,

according to five people with knowledge of the agency’s plans.

据了解环保署这批计划的五名人士透露。

The E.P.A. had originally forecast that eliminating the Obama-era rule, the Clean Power Plan,

环保署原先就预测过,取消奥巴马的政策,即取消“清洁能源计划”,

and replacing it with a new measure would have resulted in an additional 1,400 premature2 deaths per year.

继而代之以新的措施,过早死亡的年均数据可能还要多出1400例。

The new analytical3 model would significantly reduce that number

采用了新的分析模型,这一数据便会锐减,

and would most likely be used by the Trump4 administration to defend further rollbacks of air pollution rules if it is formally adopted.

而且,如果这一模型被正式采纳,特朗普政府极有可能会用它来为进一步降低空气污染规定辩护。

The proposed shift is the latest example of the Trump administration downgrading the estimates of environmental harm from pollution in regulations.

特朗普政府正在下调有关规定中对污染造成的环境损害的评估,这次拟议的调整可以说就是最新的例子。

In this case, the proposed methodology would assume there is little or no health benefit to making the air any cleaner than what the law requires.

这次提议的方法认为,让空气质量高出法律要求的水平对人们的健康几乎没有任何助益。

Many experts said that approach was not scientifically sound

许多专家都表示,从科学的角度来讲,这种方法并不可靠,

and that, in the real world, there are no safe levels of the fine particulate5 pollution associated with the burning of fossil fuels.

而且,在现实中,化石燃料燃烧产生的细颗粒物污染也不存在什么安全水平。

Fine particulate matter — the tiny, deadly particles that can penetrate6 deep into the lungs and enter the bloodstream —

细微颗粒——也即那些能够深入肺部并进入血液,微小但致命的颗粒——

is linked to heart attacks, strokes and respiratory disease.

与心脏病、中风和呼吸系统疾病等多种疾病都有关。

The five people familiar with the plan, all current or former E.P.A. officials, said the new modeling method

熟悉该计划的那五名人士都是环保署现任或前任官员,

would appear in the agency’s analysis of the final version of the replacement7 regulation, known as the Affordable8 Clean Energy rule, which is expected to be made public in June.

他们称,新的建模方法将出现在环保署对预计将于今年6月公布的替代法规,即“平价清洁能源规定”,最终版本的分析里。

Asked on Monday whether the new method would be included in the agency’s final analysis of the rule,

周一被问及新方法是否会被纳入该机构对该规定的最终分析时,

William L. Wehrum, the E.P.A. air quality chief, said

环保局空气质量部主管威廉·韦鲁姆只说,

only that the final version would include multiple analytical approaches in an effort to be transparent9.

最终版本将包括多种分析方法,力求透明。

He said the agency had made no formal change to its methodology.

他说,该机构还没有对其评估方法作出正式改变。

“It’s a very important issue, and it’s an issue where there has been a lot of debate over what the right approach is,” Mr. Wehrum said.

“这是一个非常重要的问题,在这个问题上,究竟什么才是正确的方法出现了很多争论,”韦鲁姆说道。

The E.P.A., when making major regulatory changes,

在对规章制度进行重大改革时,

is normally expected to demonstrate that society will see more benefits than costs from the change.

人们通常都期望环保署能证明,大家能从变革中看到更多的利益而不是更多的成本。

Experts said that, while benefits would appear on paper in this case,

专家们表示,虽然书面上会出现变革的各种好处,

the change actually disregards potential dangers to public health.

但这一改变实际上是忽视了它对公共健康的潜在威胁。


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1 rosier c5f556af64144e368d0d66bd10521a50     
Rosieresite
参考例句:
  • Rosier for an instant forgot the delicacy of his position. 罗齐尔一时间忘记了他的微妙处境。
  • A meeting had immediately taken place between the Countess and Mr. Rosier. 伯爵夫人和罗齐尔先生已经搭讪上了。
2 premature FPfxV     
adj.比预期时间早的;不成熟的,仓促的
参考例句:
  • It is yet premature to predict the possible outcome of the dialogue.预言这次对话可能有什么结果为时尚早。
  • The premature baby is doing well.那个早产的婴儿很健康。
3 analytical lLMyS     
adj.分析的;用分析法的
参考例句:
  • I have an analytical approach to every survey.对每项调查我都采用分析方法。
  • As a result,analytical data obtained by analysts were often in disagreement.结果各个分析家所得的分析数据常常不一致。
4 trump LU1zK     
n.王牌,法宝;v.打出王牌,吹喇叭
参考例句:
  • He was never able to trump up the courage to have a showdown.他始终鼓不起勇气摊牌。
  • The coach saved his star player for a trump card.教练保留他的明星选手,作为他的王牌。
5 particulate 4mMzPG     
adj.微小的;n.微粒,粒子
参考例句:
  • A special group was organized to dig up the particulate of the case.成立了一个专门小组来查明该案件的各个细节。
  • Lungs retain relatively insoluble particulate material.肺脏内留有不溶解的颗粒物质。
6 penetrate juSyv     
v.透(渗)入;刺入,刺穿;洞察,了解
参考例句:
  • Western ideas penetrate slowly through the East.西方观念逐渐传入东方。
  • The sunshine could not penetrate where the trees were thickest.阳光不能透入树木最浓密的地方。
7 replacement UVxxM     
n.取代,替换,交换;替代品,代用品
参考例句:
  • We are hard put to find a replacement for our assistant.我们很难找到一个人来代替我们的助手。
  • They put all the students through the replacement examination.他们让所有的学生参加分班考试。
8 affordable kz6zfq     
adj.支付得起的,不太昂贵的
参考例句:
  • The rent for the four-roomed house is affordable.四居室房屋的房租付得起。
  • There are few affordable apartments in big cities.在大城市中没有几所公寓是便宜的。
9 transparent Smhwx     
adj.明显的,无疑的;透明的
参考例句:
  • The water is so transparent that we can see the fishes swimming.水清澈透明,可以看到鱼儿游来游去。
  • The window glass is transparent.窗玻璃是透明的。

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