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纽约时报 环保署对空气污染所持态度过于乐观(2)

时间:2020-11-20 06:43:28

(单词翻译:单击)

Particulate1 matter is extremely harmful and it leads to a large number of premature2 deaths,”

“微粒物质危害极大,会导致大量人口早逝,”

said Richard L. Revesz, an expert in environmental law at New York University.

纽约大学环境法专家查理·里弗斯说道。

He called the expected change a “monumental departure”

他称这一预料之中的变化

from the approach both Republican and Democratic E.P.A. leaders have used over the past several decades

“严重背离”了环保署过去数十年来横跨两党的各届领导人一直沿用的方法,

and predicted that it would lay the groundwork for weakening more environmental regulations.

他还预测,这一改变将奠定下日后撼动其他环保规定的基础。

“It could be an enormously significant impact,” Mr. Revesz said.

“可能因此造成巨大的影响,”里弗斯说。

The Obama administration had sought to reduce planet-warming greenhouse gas emissions3 under the Clean Power Plan

奥巴马政府曾试图通过清洁能源计划推动公用事业公司脱离煤炭,

by pushing utilities to switch away from coal and instead use natural gas or renewable energy to generate electricity.

转用天然气或可再生能源发电,籍此减少温室气体的排放。

The Obama plan would also have what is known as a co-benefit: levels of fine particulate matter would fall.

这一方案还能带来一大衍生利益:降低细颗粒物的水平。

The Trump4 administration has moved to repeal5 the Obama-era plan and replace it with the Affordable6 Clean Energy rule,

特朗普政府废除了奥巴马执政时期的这一方案,代之以“平价清洁能源”规定,

which would slightly improve the efficiency of coal plants.

在该规定下,燃煤电厂的效率会稍有提高。

It would also allow older coal plants to remain in operation longer and result in an increase of particulate matter.

但该规定允许老旧的燃煤电厂继续运营,势必增加空气中颗粒物的含量。

Particulate matter comes in various sizes.

颗粒物有各种大小。

The greatest health risk comes from what is known as PM 2.5, the range of fine particles that are less than 2.5 microns in diameter.

其中,对健康威胁最大的是pm2.5,即直径小于2.5μm的细颗粒物。

That is about one-thirtieth the width of a human hair.

这一直径大致相当于人类头发宽度的三十分之一。

The E.P.A. has set the safety threshold for PM 2.5 at a yearly average of 12 micrograms per cubic meter.

环保署给pm2.5设置的浓度限值为年平均浓度12μg/m3。

While individual days vary, with some higher,

虽然个别天数有所不同,有时更高,

an annual average at or below that level, known as the particulate matter standard, is considered safe.

但年平均水平处于或低于该水平(即颗粒物标准)时,空气质量即为优。

However, the agency still weighs health hazards that occur in the safe range when it analyzes7 new regulations.

然而,该机构在分析新法规时,还是会考察处于安全范围内的颗粒水平的健康危害。

Industry has long questioned that system.

长期以来,业界对这一制度一直存有疑虑。

After all, fossil fuel advocates ask,

毕竟,倡导使用化石燃料的人群会问,

why should the E.P.A. search for health dangers, and, ultimately, impose costs on industry,

官方已经认定空气质量安全,

in situations where air is officially considered safe?

环保署为何还要继续查找健康危险,给行业增加成本?

Mr. Wehrum, who worked as a lawyer and lobbyist

韦鲁姆曾为化工企业和化石燃料企业担任律师和说客,

for chemical manufacturers and fossil fuel businesses before moving to the E.P.A.,

后来加入了环保署,

echoed that position in two interviews.

他在两次采访中都曾表达这一观点。

He noted8 that, in some regulations, the benefits of reduced particulate matter have been estimated to total in the range of $40 billion.

他指出,某些法规预计,减少颗粒物能带来总价值400亿美元左右的好处。

“How in the world can you get $30 or $40 billion of benefit to public health

“当那三四百亿的好处大部分都应归功于某些指数的降低,

when most of that is attributable to reductions in areas that already meet a health-based standard,” he said.

而那些指数本就已达到以人类健康为尺度设置的空气质量标准的要求的情况下,你怎么能说那是新法规在公共卫生领域取得的成效呢?”

“That doesn’t make any sense.”

“根本说不通嘛。”


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1 particulate 4mMzPG     
adj.微小的;n.微粒,粒子
参考例句:
  • A special group was organized to dig up the particulate of the case.成立了一个专门小组来查明该案件的各个细节。
  • Lungs retain relatively insoluble particulate material.肺脏内留有不溶解的颗粒物质。
2 premature FPfxV     
adj.比预期时间早的;不成熟的,仓促的
参考例句:
  • It is yet premature to predict the possible outcome of the dialogue.预言这次对话可能有什么结果为时尚早。
  • The premature baby is doing well.那个早产的婴儿很健康。
3 emissions 1a87f8769eb755734e056efecb5e2da9     
排放物( emission的名词复数 ); 散发物(尤指气体)
参考例句:
  • Most scientists accept that climate change is linked to carbon emissions. 大多数科学家都相信气候变化与排放的含碳气体有关。
  • Dangerous emissions radiate from plutonium. 危险的辐射物从钚放散出来。
4 trump LU1zK     
n.王牌,法宝;v.打出王牌,吹喇叭
参考例句:
  • He was never able to trump up the courage to have a showdown.他始终鼓不起勇气摊牌。
  • The coach saved his star player for a trump card.教练保留他的明星选手,作为他的王牌。
5 repeal psVyy     
n.废止,撤消;v.废止,撤消
参考例句:
  • He plans to repeal a number of current policies.他计划废除一些当前的政策。
  • He has made out a strong case for the repeal of the law.他提出强有力的理由,赞成废除该法令。
6 affordable kz6zfq     
adj.支付得起的,不太昂贵的
参考例句:
  • The rent for the four-roomed house is affordable.四居室房屋的房租付得起。
  • There are few affordable apartments in big cities.在大城市中没有几所公寓是便宜的。
7 analyzes e2e80b8320e1dd8d4c035d41fd7e44e5     
v.分析( analyze的第三人称单数 );分解;解释;对…进行心理分析
参考例句:
  • This approach analyzes management by studying experience usually through cases. 这个学派通常从实例获得经验,用以分析管理。 来自辞典例句
  • The econometrician analyzes statistical data. 经济计量学者要分析统计材料。 来自辞典例句
8 noted 5n4zXc     
adj.著名的,知名的
参考例句:
  • The local hotel is noted for its good table.当地的那家酒店以餐食精美而著称。
  • Jim is noted for arriving late for work.吉姆上班迟到出了名。

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