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万物简史 第298期:地下的烈火(6)

时间:2017-09-14 00:28:12

(单词翻译:单击)

   He had discovered the boundary between the crust and the layer immediately below, the mantle1; 他发现地壳与下面一层即地幔的界线,

  this zone has been known ever since as the Mohorovicic discontinuity, or Moho for short. 此后,这个区域后来一直被称之为莫霍洛维契奇不连续面,简称莫霍面。
  We were beginning to get a vague idea of the Earth's layered interior—though it really was only vague. 我们开始对地球内部的层次有了个模糊的概念——虽然的确仅仅是模糊的。
  Not until 1936 did a Danish scientist named Inge Lehmann, studying seismographs of earthquakes in New Zealand, discover that there were two cores, 1936年,丹麦科学家英·莱曼在研究新西兰地震的地震仪读数的过程中,发现有两个地核,
  an inner one that we now believe to be solid and an outer one (the one that Oldham had detected) that is thought to be liquid and the seat of magnetism2. 一个内核和一个外核。内核我们现在认为是坚硬的;外核被认为是液态的,是产生磁力的地方。
  At just about the time that Lehmann was refining our basic understanding of the Earth's interior by studying the seismic3 waves of earthquakes, 就在莱曼通过研究地震波,提高我们对地球内部的基本认识的时候,
  two geologists4 at Caltech in California were devising a way to make comparisons between one earthquake and the next. 加州理工学院的两位地质学家发明了一种把前一次地震和后一次地震进行比较的方法。
  They were Charles Richter and Beno Gutenberg, 他们是查尔斯·里克特和贝诺·古滕堡。
  though for reasons that have nothing to do with fairness the scale became known almost at once as Richter's alone. 由于与公平毫不相干的原因,震级的名称几乎马上只被称之为里氏震级。
  (It has nothing to do with Richter either. (这些原因与里克特本人也毫不相干。
  A modest fellow, he never referred to the scale by his own name, but always called it "the Magnitude Scale.") 里克特是个很谦逊的人,从来不在震级前面加上自己的名字,总是只叫“震级”。)
  The Richter scale has always been widely misunderstood by nonscientists, though perhaps a little less so now 许多非科学家对里氏震级一直存在误解,虽然现在的情况也许有所改善。
  than in its early days when visitors to Richter's office often asked to see his celebrated5 scale, thinking it was some kind of machine.  早年,参观里克特办公室的人往往要求看一眼他的杰作,以为那是一台机器。

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1 mantle Y7tzs     
n.斗篷,覆罩之物,罩子;v.罩住,覆盖,脸红
参考例句:
  • The earth had donned her mantle of brightest green.大地披上了苍翠欲滴的绿色斗篷。
  • The mountain was covered with a mantle of snow.山上覆盖着一层雪。
2 magnetism zkxyW     
n.磁性,吸引力,磁学
参考例句:
  • We know about magnetism by the way magnets act.我们通过磁铁的作用知道磁性是怎么一回事。
  • His success showed his magnetism of courage and devotion.他的成功表现了他的胆量和热诚的魅力。
3 seismic SskyM     
a.地震的,地震强度的
参考例句:
  • Earthquakes produce two types of seismic waves.地震产生两种地震波。
  • The latest seismic activity was also felt in northern Kenya.肯尼亚北部也感觉到了最近的地震活动。
4 geologists 1261592151f6aa40819f7687883760a2     
地质学家,地质学者( geologist的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • Geologists uncovered the hidden riches. 地质学家发现了地下的宝藏。
  • Geologists study the structure of the rocks. 地质学家研究岩石结构。
5 celebrated iwLzpz     
adj.有名的,声誉卓著的
参考例句:
  • He was soon one of the most celebrated young painters in England.不久他就成了英格兰最负盛名的年轻画家之一。
  • The celebrated violinist was mobbed by the audience.观众团团围住了这位著名的小提琴演奏家。

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